**Problem:**

Please find the problem here.

**Solution:**

If there aren't any existing highways, this is a just a typical minimum spanning tree problem.

But there is, and now we are trying to find a minimum spanning graph containing those existing edges. Note that it may not be a tree because the given edges might have cycles.

But there is no point to add more edges that either create new cycle or connecting existing connected components, therefore we will simply use Kruskal's as usual with just one modification.

- Union the nodes that is connected by existing highways.

And then we are all set.

To 'show' the correctness, we can imagine a new multi-graph is created by contracting all the nodes connected by existing highways. It is a multi-graph (i.e. one with multiple edges) because we could have two edges 1 - 2, 1 - 3 but 2 and 3 are connected by an existing highway.

Then we run Kruskal's on the new graph, this generates a minimum spanning tree on that new graph.

Now we expand the contracted nodes, that yields a spanning graph. It is also easy to see that the graph is minimum, for otherwise we could get a minimum spanning tree in the contracted graph!

With that, the code is almost trivial adaptation from the existing Kruskal's code. One optimization is done to make sure all pairs of cities are not considered at all if all cities are already connected.

**Code:**

#include "stdafx.h" // http://uva.onlinejudge.org/index.php?option=com_onlinejudge&Itemid=8&page=show_problem&problem=1088 #include "UVa10147.h" #include <iostream> #include <vector> #include <map> #include <queue> #include <cmath> using namespace std; int UVa10147_find(int item, vector<int>& sets) { if (sets[item] < 0) { return item; } else { return sets[item] = UVa10147_find(sets[item], sets); } } bool UVa10147_union(int item1, int item2, vector<int>& sets) { int set1 = UVa10147_find(item1, sets); int set2 = UVa10147_find(item2, sets); if (set1 != set2) { // Union if (sets[set1] < sets[set2]) // set1 is larger { sets[set1] = sets[set1] + sets[set2]; // size increased sets[set2] = set1; // union } else { sets[set2] = sets[set1] + sets[set2]; // size increased sets[set1] = set2; // union } return true; } else { return false; } } class UVa10147_Edge { public: UVa10147_Edge(int _src, int _dst, double _weight) : src(_src), dst(_dst), weight(_weight) {} int src; int dst; double weight; }; class UVa10147_Edge_Less { public: bool operator()(UVa10147_Edge edge1, UVa10147_Edge edge2) { return edge1.weight > edge2.weight; } }; int UVa10147() { int number_of_test_cases; cin >> number_of_test_cases; for (int test_case = 1; test_case <= number_of_test_cases; test_case++) { // Step 1.1: Read cities int number_of_cities; cin >> number_of_cities; vector<pair<int, int> > cities; cities.resize(number_of_cities); for (int c = 0; c < number_of_cities; c++) { int x; int y; cin >> x; cin >> y; cities[c] = pair<int, int>(x, y); } // Step 2.2: Kruskal's 2: Setup disjoint set union find vector<int> disjoint_sets; disjoint_sets.resize(number_of_cities); for (int f = 0; f < number_of_cities; f++) { disjoint_sets[f] = -1; } // Step 1.2: Read highways - we need to perform it after setting up the disjoint sets // to avoid storing them separately int number_of_existing_highways; cin >> number_of_existing_highways; int number_of_remaining_highways = number_of_cities - 1; for (int h = 0; h < number_of_existing_highways; h++) { int src; int dst; cin >> src; cin >> dst; // Step 2.3: Kruskal's: merge cities already joined by highway if (UVa10147_union(src - 1, dst - 1, disjoint_sets)) { number_of_remaining_highways--; } } if (test_case != 1) { cout << endl; } if (number_of_remaining_highways == 0) { cout << "No new highways need" << endl; } else { // Step 2.1: Kruskal's: Push all edges to priority queue // This is an optimization - just in case no new highway is needed there is no point to go // through all pairs of cities priority_queue<UVa10147_Edge, vector<UVa10147_Edge>, UVa10147_Edge_Less> edges; for (int src = 0; src < number_of_cities; src++) { for (int dst = src + 1; dst < number_of_cities; dst++) { double src_x = cities[src].first; double src_y = cities[src].second; double dst_x = cities[dst].first; double dst_y = cities[dst].second; double diff_x = src_x - dst_x; double diff_y = src_y - dst_y; double dist = sqrt(diff_x * diff_x + diff_y * diff_y); edges.push(UVa10147_Edge(src, dst, dist)); } } // Step 2.4: Kruskal's: For each edge, if not create cycle, add int num_edge_added = 0; while (num_edge_added != number_of_remaining_highways) { UVa10147_Edge edge = edges.top(); edges.pop(); if (UVa10147_union(edge.src, edge.dst, disjoint_sets)) { cout << (edge.src + 1) << " " << (edge.dst + 1) << endl; num_edge_added++; } } } } return 0; }

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